At present, China has become the second largest jewelry processing and consumption market in the world. In the first half of 2019, the value of jewelry imports from mainland China reached 32.1 billion US dollars, which is one of China’s important imports.

Definition of gemstones

Generalized gems include natural high quality single mineral crystals, mineral aggregates, artificial and synthetic gemstone materials and pearls.

In the narrow sense, gemstones refer to single mineral crystals and high-quality materials produced naturally, which are magnificent in color, transparent, hard and durable, rare and can be polished into jewelry. The commodities introduced in this article refer specifically to precious stones in a narrow sense.

Basic knowledge of gemstones

1.Composition of gemstones

Gems are made up of minerals or mineral assemblages. Minerals have certain chemical composition and can be expressed by chemical molecular formula. Some are simple minerals consisting of a chemical element, such as diamond (C); others are composed of two or more elements, called compound minerals, including oxides, such as quartz (SiO 2), corundum (Al2O3); carbonates, such as malachite (CuCo3Cu (OH) 2).

2.Varieties of gemstones

There are more than 4000 kinds of minerals in the world, about 100 kinds of gems, and about 40 kinds of common gems on the market. Among them, diamonds, rubies, sapphires, emeralds, cat’s eyes and metamorphoses are rare and precious gems; tourmaline, Topaz and garnet, due to their large number, have a high market share and belong to middle and low-grade gemstones.

3.Origin of gems

Some gemstone minerals are found all over the world, such as quartz and garnet, while others are more precious because of the special geographical conditions required for their formation, which are only produced in one or two places, such as rubies and emeralds. Even though some minerals are found all over the world, only a small part of them may have gemstone texture. High-grade gemstones are mainly produced in Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Colombia, Mozambique, Brazil, Madagascar and other areas.

Precautions for Customs Declaration of Gemstones

1.Declaration in strict accordance with customs requirements

Detailed gemstone information is needed so that customs can fully understand the actual situation of the goods. At present, the standard declaration of gemstones requires that the name, type, processing degree, state, source, grade, mineral name, specification and chemical composition of gemstones and semi-precious stones be provided completely and correctly.

2.Declare truthfully the value of goods

Different kinds of gemstones have different values, and the same type of gemstones have different states, sizes, grades and colors, and their prices are also different. When importing gemstones, the true transaction price shall be declared truthfully. If the gemstones belong to the auction transaction, the auction invoice or relevant vouchers shall be provided truthfully.

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